Monday, October 24, 2016

Primary vs. Secondary Sources

 Hacker and Fister (2015) offered the following definitions of "primary source" and "secondary source":
An original source, such as a speech, a diary, a novel, a legislative bill, a laboratory study, a field research report, or an eyewitness account. While not necessarily more reliable than a secondary source, a primary source has the advantage of being closely related to the information it conveys and as such is often considered essential for research, particularly in history. In the sciences, reports of new research written by the scientists who conducted it are considered primary sources. ( p. 271)
A source that comments on, analyzes, or otherwise relies on primary sources. An article in a newspaper that reports on a scientific discovery or a book that analyzes a writer's work is a secondary source. (p. 272)
Hacker, D., & Fister, B. (2015). Research and documentation in the digital age. Boston, MA:   Bedford/St. Martin's. [Available for reference at the Health Sciences Library, ZA4375 .H327 2015]

  • Yale University has a webpage that list examples of primary, secondary, and tertiary sources by subject discipline:
  • Susan Thomas, a librarian at Borough of Manhattan Community College, created a concise and clear webpage with tables that help distinguish primary and secondary sources in general:

  • Michigan State University Libraries also created a learning tool that teaches the concept of primary sources in the discipline of history.

  • Meg Kribble from Harvard Law School Library has a page that talks about secondary sources in law research.

Higher Education - Economic Aspects

CQ Researcher Reports

Clemmitt, Marcia. "Humanities Education:Are humanities degrees worth the cost?" CQ Researcher 6 Dec. 2013: 1029-52. CQ Researcher. Web. 24 Oct. 2016.

Billitteri, Thomas J. "The Value of a College Education: Is a four-year degree the only path to a secure future?" CQ Researcher 20 Nov. 2009. CQ Researcher. Web. 19 Nov. 2009.
President Obama's $12 billion American Graduation Initiative — announced in July — aims to help millions more Americans earn degrees and certificates from community colleges. The president wants the United States to have, once again, the highest proportion of college graduates in the world. Along with the administration, economists and many students and parents embrace the notion that higher education offers the most promising ticket to financial security and upward mobility. However, some argue that many young people are ill-prepared or unmotivated to get a four-year degree and should pursue apprenticeships or job-related technical training instead. The debate is casting a spotlight on trends in high-school career and technical education — long known as vocational education — and raising questions about the ability of the nation's 1,200 community colleges to meet exploding enrollment demand. From the CQ Researcher. Reprinted with permission from CQ Press.



Subject Search:


Romano, Richard M. and Hirschel Kasper. Occupational outlook for community college students. New directions for community colleges, no. 146. Jossey-Bass, 2009. Print. Main Collection. LB2328 .N472 2009 no.146

Kamenetz, Anya. Generation debt : why now is a terrible time to be young. Penguin, 2006. Print. Main Collection. HQ799.7 .K36 2006

Draut, Tamara. Strapped: why America's 20- and 30-somethings can't get ahead. Anchor, 2007.  Print. Main Collection HQ799.7 .D73 2007.

Mooney, Nan. "College Promises: Real Debt and False Expectations." in Not Keeping up with Our Parents : The Decline of the Professional Middle Class. Beacon, 2008.

America’s Divided Recovery: College Haves and Have-Nots. (2016)

College Scorecard. (A search tool created by the Department of Education for looking up average cost of colleges, debt levels, and average salaries of graduates.)  

Carnevale, Anthony P. and Ban Chea. Hard Times, College Majors, Unemployment and Earnings 2013 : Not All College Degrees Are Created Equal.  Center on Education and the Workforce. Georgetown University. 29 May 2013.

Carnevale, Anthony P., Jeff Strohl and Michelle Melton. What's it Worth? The Economic Value of College Majors. Center on Education and the Workforce. Georgetown University. 24 May 2011. "The report finds that different undergraduate majors result in very different earnings."

United States. White House. "Investing in Education: The American Graduation Initiative." by Katherine Brandon. White House Blog, 14 July 2009.

United States. Library of Congress. Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 2009 (H.R.3221).

Washington State. Board for Community & Technical Colleges. Academic Year Report. A "snapshot of funding, facilities, staffing, and enrollments . . . expenditures, personnel and students."

updated 10/2016 yy

Wednesday, October 5, 2016

Art Class Resources

To find out more about art periods and/or artists:


1. 34 Volume Print Set
The dictionary of art /Publisher: Grove's Dictionaries
Call Number: N31 .D5 1996
Location: Reference
- This set is very comprehensive, including biographies and subject entries. The last volume is the index.

2. Oxford Reference Art & Architecture Set
- Search 15 art reference books online at once with Oxford Reference.
  • The Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists
  • The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art
  • A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture
  • The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists
  • The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms
  • The Oxford Dictionary of Art
  • A Dictionary of Modern Design      
  • The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture
  • The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts
  • A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art
  • The Oxford Companion to the Garden
  • The Oxford Companion to the Photograph
  • The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance
  • The Oxford Companion to Western Art
3. Use CBC Library Catalog to find more books
  • Do a quick keyword search in the catalog, e.g. dadaism or search for reference books on artists
  • Look through the results, note the Location and Call Number of the books, e.g. Inner Visions: German Prints from the age of expressionism, Location: Main Collection, Call Number: N6868.5 .E9P7 1992
  • To find more, you can click on a relevant title to view its Subject(s)
  • Then click on the Subject links to find more books on the subject. For example, Subject(s): Dadaism
  • Sample books that might be useful:
    • History of modern design /Raizman, David Seth. Call Number:NK1175 .R35 2004 (For art & design class).
    • Seattle as collector : Seattle Office of Arts & Cultural Affairs turns 40 : 40th anniversary exhibition at Seattle Art Museum / Call Number: N8845 .S4S42 2011.
    For books on specific artists, you should also try to search the catalogs of Richland Public Library and Mid-Columbia Libraries as well. These local public libraries may have a book on the artist you have chosen to research.
4. Use EBSCOhost to find articles
  1. Do a quick keyword search, e.g. constructivism AND art (limited to Full Text and CBC Title Collection). You can also search by artists' names and find articles about them and/or their works.
  2. You can then further "Narrow Results by Subject" using links (e.g. "CONSTRUCTIVISM (Art)", "Art Movements", etc.) shown to the left of the Result List

Use Interlibrary Loan for books & articles that CBC Library does not own
  1. Talk to a reference librarian in person or over the phone (509-542-4890)
  2. Fill out an online form to Request a book/book chapter
  3. Fill out an online form to Request a journal/magazine article
  4. Allow at least one to two weeks
To browse specific journals/magazines:
  1. Use CBC Journal Finder
  2. Use the second box to "Browse e-journals by subject": "Art, Arthitecture & Applied Arts"
  3. Or search for a specific title such as Woman's art journal, Art in America, Art News
  4. Follow the links to browse periodicals online or request at circulation for those that says "CBC Pasco Paper Copies". For example, Art Journal is available through EBSCOhost. 
To find images:
Other Resources:
Local Galleries